Surah: 048 Al-Fath
This is a Madni Surah, revealed after the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah between the Muslims and the Quraish in the sixth year after migration of the Prophet ﷺ to Madina.
The Prophet ﷺ saw in a dream that he and his companions are performing Umrah, and since the dream of a prophet is part of Divine Revelation, they knew this will become true. They set out to perform Umrah but were prevented entry by the Quraish into Makkah, and after days of uncertainty and negotiations back and forth, the treaty was drawn up at Hudaibiyyah. This marked a turning point in history as for the first time, the Quraish recognized the Muslims as a state and signed an agreement with them. Although the Muslims were prevented from performing Umrah that year, they were permitted to come back next year and complete the pilgrimage. More importantly, they agreed to a truce for ten years, which meant security for Muslims and an opportunity to propagate their faith in the region without hostility from Quraish, something they had never witnessed before.
The surahs begin with declaring a victory for the Prophet ﷺ. Those who pledged their allegiance to the Prophet ﷺ, it is equivalent to pledging their allegiance to Allaah (SWT), for it seemed that fighting the Quraish would be inevitable. For their willingness to confront the Quraish, Allaah (SWT) rewarded the believers with tranquility and victory. Although once the treaty was drawn, the believers became frustrated as they had to return and come back for Umrah next year, they questioned how can the dream of the Prophet ﷺ not be fulfilled. They are told that the dream will indeed be fulfilled, and now the circumstances are more favorable as Quraish is bound by the treaty and will not harm them.
Praising the followers of the Prophet ﷺ, it is said that they are forceful against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves. And they have been described in the Torah as having marks of prostrations and in the Gospel as offshoots of a plant which strengthens its. For them is forgiveness and a great reward from Allaah (SWT).