Surah: 025 Al-Furqan
This is middle Makki Surah, and its name is derived from the first verse of this surah, which mentions Al Furqan, the Criterion, as a revelation from Allaah (SWT). It refers to the Qur’an, in that it helps to separate the truth from falsehood.
The disbelievers rejected the Qur’an alleging that someone assisted the Prophet ﷺ in compiling it, and it’s full of narrations of past people. And about the Prophet ﷺ, they questioned his ordinary needs as a human being and demanded that an angel or treasures be sent to him that they can witness. Allaah (SWT) informs them all previous prophets were such, that they had needs to be fulfilled and were from among the people. The role of the Prophet ﷺ is to warn the disbelievers, and he does not seek any compensation or benefits in return.
Angels are sent to carry out punishment on the people, and when the disbelievers will witness them on the Day of Resurrection, they will be overcome with regret. Also, they will be denied by those whom they worshipped and so regret the bad company they kept in the world.
The Qur’an was revealed over twenty-three years, part by part, so as to strengthen the faiths of the believers, and also to provide solutions as and when necessary, even though the disbelievers demanded that it be revealed all at once.
Briefly mentioned are prophets, such as Musa (AS), Harun (AS) and Nuh (AS), and nations such as Aad, Thamud, People of the Well and Sodom.
When the disbelievers were asked to submit to Ar Rahman, the Most Merciful, they would question as to Who is this Most Merciful? So the surah concludes by elaborating on the qualities of the slaves of the Most Merciful, speaking of their worship as well as a method of dealing with the people in the world.
And Allaah (SWT) is free of any want or need.